Announcing the DRA’s 2016 Lower Deschutes River Water Quality Report

We are thrilled to announce the publication of the DRA’s 2016 Lower Deschutes River Water Quality Report. This report—along with three other reports we’ll be releasing over the next two months—is the culmination of the DRA’s most detailed investigation yet of the causes and extent of the ecological changes occurring in the lower Deschutes River.

An important aspect of the report analyzes hourly water quality data collected at River Mile 99, one mile below the Pelton Reregulating Dam, from February 18 through November 22, 2016. All data collected for pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen are presented and analyzed, and compared against water quality requirements contained in the state-issued Clean Water Act § 401 Certification for the Pelton-Round Butte Complex, as well as Oregon’s water quality standards for the Deschutes Basin. Read the whole thing here.

This report represents the most complete public analysis yet of the impact of Selective Water Withdrawal operations on water quality below the Pelton-Round Butte Hydroelectric Complex. Key findings include:

  • Oregon’s water quality standard for pH in the Deschutes Basin (6.5-8.5 SU) was exceeded on 234 out of 279 days that data were collected (84%). 43% of the days sampled had pH measurements greater than 9.0.
  • Each year since 2011, Project operators have worked with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality to purportedly weaken the water quality requirements in the Project’s Clean Water Act § 401 Certification. These changes include:
    • The defined spawning season for salmonids was changed from year-round to Oct. 15-June 15. This change allows the application of a lower dissolved oxygen standard during the non-spawning period (June 16-Oct. 14). However, this newly defined spawning period does not take into account the full season of resident trout spawning and egg incubation, as is required by the Oregon Administrative Rules. This has caused dissolved oxygen levels in the lower Deschutes River to fall below levels required to protect resident salmonids through egg incubation and fry emergence.
    • The water temperature that triggers the blending of cool bottom water from Lake Billy Chinook with warmer surface water has been markedly increased since the Selective Water Withdrawal tower began operations. This has allowed the release of 100% surface water into the lower Deschutes River to continue later into the summer.
  • Changes in pH and dissolved oxygen, documented by this study and ODEQ’s own data, clearly indicate that excess nutrients are being released into the lower Deschutes River from the surface waters of Lake Billy Chinook.

DRA’s 2016 Lower Deschutes River Water Quality Report clearly establishes that, in just seven years of operation, the Selective Water Withdrawal tower at Pelton-Round Butte has severely degraded water quality and threatens aquatic life below the Project. We believe this report will serve as an important document for all basin stakeholders in assessing the impact of tower operations on the river we all love.

A special thanks to all of our supporters, whose generosity and passion for the river has made all of our science work possible. We’d like to take this opportunity to specifically thank the various organizations and foundations who have provided funding to support this critical work, including:

  • The Oregon Wildlife Heritage Fund
  • Maybelle Clark MacDonald Fund
  • Flyfishers Club of Oregon/Flyfishers Foundation
  • Clark-Skamania Flyfishers
  • Mazamas
  • American Fly Fishing Trade Association
  • Tualatin Valley Chapter of Trout Unlimited
  • Washington County Fly Fishers

Cooler, cleaner H2O for the Deschutes!

Photo by Brian O’Keefe


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Lawsuit Update: Court Denies PGE’s Motion to Dismiss

Round Butte Dam and the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower.

Great news! On Monday morning, Judge Simon denied PGE’s motion to dismiss the DRA’s Clean Water Act lawsuit. In its motion, PGE had argued that the Clean Water Act does not authorize lawsuits by private citizens, including groups like the DRA, to enforce water quality requirements at hydro projects like Pelton-Round Butte. Judge Simon’s decision thoughtfully rejected each of PGE’s arguments on the issue, ultimately finding that the company’s interpretation of the Clean Water Act “rewrites the statute.” Read the whole decision here.

Judge Simon’s ruling, which allows the DRA’s lawsuit against PGE to proceed, is great news for lovers of the Deschutes River, and a critical step in our efforts to return cold, clean water to the lower Deschutes. But it’s also a great victory for river advocates across the country: a decision in PGE’s favor would have impacted the ability of citizens and states to protect water quality on all rivers impacted by hydroelectric projects.

This is truly an important decision for the Deschutes River, and we’re eager to finally move on and address the merits of the case. Judge Simon’s ruling ensures that the DRA will have the ability, as the Clean Water Act clearly provides, to hold PGE accountable for violations of water quality requirements at Pelton-Round Butte. This is the first step to restoring the river we all love.

Keep an eye on the blog for more updates on the lawsuit, and on all of the DRA’s science and advocacy efforts. Cooler, cleaner H2O for the Deschutes!

Redband trout, lower Deschutes River. Photo by Brian O’Keefe


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Smallmouth Bass in the Lower Deschutes River

Many folks who have spent time on the lower Deschutes River this summer have noticed something unusual. Smallmouth bass, typically quite rare in the lower Deschutes, are suddenly present in large numbers. What are they doing there? Where did they come from? How does their presence affect resident fish? Today, we attempt to answer some of these questions, in two parts. In the first part of today’s post, we give an overview of this summer’s bass invasion, and attempt to sort out why we’re suddenly seeing so many of this particular species. In the second part, Steve Pribyl, former Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Fisheries Biologist for the lower Deschutes River, provides a history of smallmouth bass in the lower river—a critically important perspective on what we’re seeing in the river this year.

Part One: 2016 Lower Deschutes River Bass Invasion

The weird things happening in the lower Deschutes River and its tributaries just never seem to end. A year ago the big story in the lower river was the two fish die-offs in June and early July. First with sockeye near the mouth, then spring Chinook near the confluence with the Warm Springs River.

This year, like in a science fiction movie, it’s the invasion of smallmouth bass. In a science fiction movie the bass would be from outer space, but in this case they are, in all likelihood, from the Columbia River.

Almost as soon as anglers began fishing for steelhead this summer in the Deschutes River’s lower 40 miles, we started hearing reports of smallmouth bass being caught. There have always been stories and rumors of a bass being caught here or there, perhaps once or twice a season in the lower river. But the reports this summer were of six bass being caught at a time! Or a dozen or more in a single float trip. Far more bass were being caught than steelhead (no surprise given the weak steelhead run this year).

By mid-August we had reports of smallmouth bass being caught as far upstream as Buckhollow Boat Ramp.

The most successful lure or fly for catching smallmouth in the Deschutes this summer was the Blue Fox spinner. We also heard reports of smallmouth bass being taken on steelhead flies, with streamers seeming to be the most productive. It is worth noting that these are not the sorts of flies and lures one would use if purposefully fishing for bass!

The problem with the bass invasion is that no one seems to know if these fish have moved in permanently, or are just visiting. We’ll not know until next year. But there is reason for alarm. If these fish do become residents in the lower Deschutes River, the redband trout population is at certain risk. Smallmouth bass and redband trout do not coexist well. Multiple examples abound of healthy rainbow trout populations being decimated after the introduction of bass into a trout fishery.

Why are smallmouth bass moving into the lower river? The most likely answer anyone has proposed is that warm spring water temperatures in the lower Deschutes River lured bass up from the Columbia River. Bass come out of winter dormancy when water temperatures reach the mid- to upper fifties, or even sixty degrees. They then seek out warm water to increase spawning success. This year the lower Deschutes River reached those sorts of temperatures over a month before the Columbia River did, likely attracting bass at that time. (For a biological discussion of smallmouth bass and temperature influence on bass behavior, see http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/337846.pdf ).

The following graph shows that the Columbia River in The Dalles pool reached 60 degrees F right around June 1.

columbia-graph

And this graph shows that the lower Deschutes River at Moody (just upstream from the confluence with the Columbia River) first reached 60 degrees F in mid-April.

deschutes-graph

Another important question as we unravel this mystery is whether the lower Deschutes River at Moody is warmer now than it was prior to selective water withdrawal operations at the Pelton-Round Butte Complex. There are no data with which to make that determination, as there wasn’t a temperature gauge at Moody until July 2011. However, the following graph shows that temperatures immediately below Pelton-Round Butte are now much warmer in the spring than they were prior to the commencement of selective water withdrawal operations.

graph-3

Previous DRA research has illustrated that these higher discharge temperatures at Pelton-Round Butte impact river temperatures all the way to the confluence with the Columbia River. So it’s quite likely that spring temperatures at Moody are now significantly higher than before SWW operations began. Unfortunately, these higher spring temperatures resulting from SWW operations may very well be responsible for this year’s smallmouth bass invasion.

It has been suggested that bass in the lower Deschutes River might be of little consequence as bass and other species seem to be coexisting in the John Day River. But this is not an analogous situation. There isn’t a redband trout fishery in the John Day River that would be threatened by smallmouth bass. Juvenile anadromous fish are said to migrate down the John Day River somewhat earlier in the year than Deschutes River steelhead and Chinook juveniles. This means that in the John Day River the juveniles are migrating in colder water temperatures, when smallmouth bass are still dormant.

We won’t know the longer-term consequence of this year’s bass invasion until next year. If juvenile bass are present in the lower Deschutes River, it will be safe to assume that they have colonized the lower river.

Part Two: History of Smallmouth Bass in the Lower Deschutes River

By: Steve Pribyl

I worked for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife as a fish biologist on the lower 100 miles of the Deschutes River from 1977 to 1980, and again from 1985 to 2004. In addition to this work experience, I fished the river extensively during those years and have been able to spend even more time fishing since my retirement. I am very familiar with the history of smallmouth bass in the lower Deschutes River.

With the exception of drastically increased smallmouth bass abundance in 1996, which I will discuss below, there has always been a very, very small background number of smallmouth bass in the Deschutes River downstream from Macks Canyon (river mile 25). Before this year, the furthest upstream that I had personally observed a smallmouth bass was at Bull Run (river mile 18), with other very occasional observations downstream from there.

I fished the river downstream from Macks Canyon extensively for both trout and summer steelhead for almost 40 years before catching my first smallmouth bass this summer. Similarly, friends of mine that have guided professionally for steelhead on the river, several for more than 30 years, have caught very few smallmouth bass. Prior to this summer, these friends relate to me that in their entire careers on the Deschutes (with the exception of 1996, as discussed below), they probably caught less than 10 smallmouth bass total in literally thousands of days on the river.

Steve Pribyl with a recent catch.

Steve Pribyl with a recent catch.

1996 was an unusual year in the lower Deschutes River. That year, smallmouth bass were very abundant downstream from approximately Harris Canyon (river mile 12). In August 1996, guides reported catching up to 8 or 10 smallmouth each day while fishing for summer steelhead. I recall rowing an enforcement trip with members of the Oregon State Police, Fish and Wildlife Division, that summer where we contacted two anglers at Sharp’s Bar (river mile 5.5) that were actually targeting smallmouth bass and having considerable success. I specifically remember this event because while we were observing these subjects at a distance through binoculars, it appeared they were catching and keeping trout in excess of the legal size and catch limits. I recall the disappointment of the Oregon State Police troopers when further investigation revealed the fish to be smallmouth and no citations were going to be issued!

Smallmouth bass continued to be caught regularly and in impressive numbers throughout August and into early September of that year, but disappeared from the catch by mid to late September.

The sudden abundance of smallmouth in the lower Deschutes River in 1996 was both troubling and curious to me at the time. Large numbers of smallmouth had been present in the Columbia for many, many years, and the fish were present in Lake Billy Chinook, the reservoir formed by Round Butte Dam at about river mile 110. Yet they were rarely seen in the Deschutes River. I theorized at the time that either water temperatures in the Deschutes were colder than smallmouth bass really preferred, or the gradient of the Deschutes was higher then they could cope with very effectively. Either or both of these factors kept smallmouth bass from colonizing the river from upstream or downstream. Yet suddenly, in the summer of 1996, large numbers of smallmouth bass were present in the lower 12 miles. The temperature regime in the Deschutes had not changed that year, and obviously the gradient had not changed to allow smallmouth to live more effectively there.

With the information at hand, we formed a theory about the sudden increase in smallmouth bass that year. The passage of time, while not proving the theory correct, certainly has not disproved it either.

There was a very large rain on snow flood event in early February, 1996. Without researching flows in the Deschutes basin, I do recall that flows at the Moody gage were in excess of 70,000 cfs and that Warm Springs River at its mouth flowed in excess of 30,000 cfs.   Large volumes of flood water coming into Lake Billy Chinook necessitated a period of spill from the reservoir. Again, without researching it, I don’t recall how much was spilled, or for how long, but it was substantial. We theorized that there were many smallmouth bass entrained in that flood spill and passed through both Lake Simtustus and the Reregulation Dam Reservoir into the flowing Deschutes. These smallmouth bass, finding the upper parts of the Deschutes colder than their preferred temperature, progressively moved downstream until they found the warmer water of late summer in the lower 12 miles more to their liking, where they then took up residence. When water temperatures cooled in mid- to late September below those that smallmouth prefer, the fish again started to move downstream, this time into the Columbia. After 1996, smallmouth were again only a very rare capture, and I largely quit worrying about the species invading the lower Deschutes.

Smallmouth abundance in the lower 12 miles of the Deschutes has changed dramatically in 2016. In July, anglers started to catch five to ten per day while targeting steelhead, with steelhead gear in steelhead water. Several anglers in early August have actually targeted smallmouth and report catch rates of up to 10 smallmouth per hour, catch rates that would be considered good on the John Day River, a regionally famous smallmouth fishery. Smallmouth in excess of 16 inches in length have been reported from the Deschutes this summer. Even more unusual—and almost beyond belief—is the photo documentation of a largemouth bass caught in the Deschutes at river mile 12 in early August! This is the one and only documented largemouth sighting I am aware of in the Deschutes and I can’t even begin to wrap my head around what that means.

The obvious questions are (1) where are these smallmouth bass coming from, and (2) what has changed to allow the species to flourish in the lower Deschutes? With regard to the first question, I believe these fish are traveling up the Deschutes from the Columbia River. The protocol at the Pelton-Round Butte fish passage facility is to not pass smallmouth captured at that facility downstream into the lower Deschutes, so it is unlikely the fish originated above the dams.

So what is allowing smallmouth to flourish in the lower river this summer? While stream gradient in the lower Deschutes has obviously stayed constant, temperatures in the lower Deschutes have changed significantly. I believe PGE’s surface water withdrawal operations, designed to aid downstream juvenile passage at the Pelton-Round Butte Complex, have increased water temperatures in the lower river enough, and for a long enough period of time, that smallmouth bass are now able to invade the Deschutes from the Columbia River and find conditions that have apparently allowed them to flourish.

It remains to be seen how long smallmouth will now continue to use the lower river, but with continued releases of warmer water into the Deschutes from the surface of Lake Billy Chinook the situation is not likely to change. This is certainly troublesome, given the obvious negative impacts to resident salmonids from smallmouth predation.


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Yellowstone River Closed Due to Fish-Killing Parasite

On Friday, August 19, Montana’s Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks announced the closure of 183 miles of the Yellowstone River to all recreational use. The reason for the closure was the discovery of over 2,000 dead mountain whitefish and reports of dead rainbow trout and cutthroat trout.

Photo: Google Photos

Photo: Google Photos

The cause of the fish die-off appears to have been proliferative kidney disease (PKD), which is caused by a parasite known as Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. In the past, this organism has caused outbreaks of disease and fish death amongst salmonids in various hatcheries and freshwater in the Pacific Northwest. It seems to be most hazardous to fish when water temperatures reach and stay above 54 degrees F. The Yellowstone River has been low and warm this year.   There are no antibiotics to treat the infection.

The Yellowstone River was closed to prevent transmission of the infectious agent to other waters.

Photo: Google Photos

Photo: Google Photos

We want to bring this to everyone’s attention as a reminder that if you travel to different bodies of water to fish, please be sure to clean wading boots, waders, fish nets and boats prior to moving to the next body of water. There has been a fair amount of controversy and disagreement as to what adequate cleaning consists of. We are providing a link to the most recent, and arguably most logical, guidance on the cleaning of fishing equipment. The instructions are relatively easy to follow and don’t include any measures that shorten the life of your gear (bleach, heat, etc.).

The instructions can be found at this link:

http://www.stopans.org/Cleaning/Tips_Careful_Cleaning.pdf

Please help us keep the lower Deschutes River and all bodies of water free of invasive species!


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Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Notifies Portland General Electric of “Serious Shortcomings” in R2 Resource Consultants Report on Insects and Algae in Lower Deschutes River

Round Butte Dam and the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Round Butte Dam and the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Citing flawed laboratory methodology and inappropriately applied statistical analysis, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) informed Portland General Electric (PGE) in a May 23, 2016 letter that PGE’s report by R2 Resource Consultants has been deemed inadequate and deficient in several key components.

The primary purpose of the R2 Resource Consultants study, titled “Final Report: Lower Deschutes River Macroinvertebrate and Periphyton Study” and mandated by the dam operators’ Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification, is to determine whether or not operation of the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower at Round Butte Dam has had an impact on the ecology of the river below the dam complex. A baseline study was done in 1999-2001. The present study was intended to compare current in-river conditions in the lower Deschutes River to prior conditions as they were documented in the baseline study.

ODEQ has given PGE until June 30, 2016 to “respond with a plan for mitigating or eliminating the shortcomings of the study.”

As a result, the study’s conclusion that water quality and overall health has improved in the lower river has been rendered an assertion without scientific support. The ODEQ review even went on to say that there are indications that the study supports the opposite conclusion and that water quality has been reduced.

The ODEQ review of the study also expressed the same concern that the DRA had previously described regarding the collection of water quality data and the suggestion by the authors that unfavorable water quality results in the report were due to poorly calibrated instruments.

DRA Analysis of the Report

The DRA had asked four highly qualified individuals (each has a PhD in a field specific to the R2 report) to critique the study. We recently received the first of those critiques back. It is critical of the statistical methodology employed by R2 Resource Consultants and confirms ODEQ’s analysis.

We sought these four reviews as we had major concerns about the R2 report. Almost all of our concerns are mirrored in the ODEQ analysis.

The Selective Water Withdrawal Tower above Round Butte Dam. Photo by Greg McMillan.

The Selective Water Withdrawal Tower above Round Butte Dam. Photo by Greg McMillan.

How Did This Happen?

The macroinvertebrate and periphyton study is a highly important component of the monitoring of the Pelton-Round Hydroelectric Complex impact on the Deschutes River. The installation and implementation of the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower was the single largest anthropogenic change that has been imposed on the lower Deschutes River in the past fifty years. The impacts of that change have to be monitored effectively using appropriate methodology and analysis. This sort of monitoring is mandated by the Water Quality Management and Monitoring Plan, a part of the Clean Water Act Section 401 Certification that sets standards for operations at the Pelton-Round Butte Hydroelectric Complex.

This is the only way to determine if tower operations are having harmful effects on the lower river.

The dam operation permits and certification call for “adaptive management” in the event that there are problems created by Selective Water Withdrawal. To date, the only “adaptive management” invoked by PGE has been to seek agreements from ODEQ not to enforce various water quality requirements imposed on dam operations. The intent of the macroinvertebrate and periphyton study is to determine if that has or has not resulted in damage to the ecology of the lower river.

So the stakes are high for PGE. If this report were to document a decline in water quality and unfavorable changes to the ecology of the river below the dam complex, changes in dam operations would need to be made.

R2 Resource Consultants seem to be highly qualified to conduct studies such as this. But the work was done as a paid service to PGE.

PGE has been entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring for adverse changes to the river system as a consequence of the SWW Tower and its operation. This responsibility needs to be undertaken with a rigorous and transparent approach to assessing the state of a public resource affected by their operations. Anything else is a violation of that responsibility.

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Deschutes River Alliance Notifies Portland General Electric of Intent to Sue

On May 13, 2016, the Deschutes River Alliance (DRA) sent notification to Portland General Electric (PGE) of DRA’s intent to file suit for violations of PGE’s Clean Water Act Section 401 Certification for the Pelton-Round Butte Hydroelectric Complex.

The Section 401 Certification sets out water quality requirements agreed to by PGE during the dam licensing process and embodied in a document titled “Water Quality Management and Monitoring Plan” (WQMMP). The Section 401 Certification is a required component of the Pelton-Round Butte Complex’s operating license (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission License No. 2030).

PGE’s own water quality reports provide evidence of violations of temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH requirements at the Pelton-Round Butte Hydroelectric Project. The DRA has catalogued over 1,200 specific violations of the 401 Certification that have occurred since operations began at the Selective Water Withdrawal (SWW) Tower at Round Butte Dam on December 31, 2009.

Due to PGE’s lack of willingness to openly and meaningfully discuss and address these violations, and other issues, the DRA has been left with no alternative but to seek court-ordered enforcement of the law regarding the water quality requirements.

Further, DRA believes that the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ), the primary enforcement agency, has failed to demonstrate any inclination to enforce the terms of the Section 401 Certification. Rather than requiring changes in dam operations so as to comply with water quality requirements, ODEQ has deferred to PGE’s demands and facilitated a purported weakening of those requirements.

PGE’s water quality violations are a reflection of other water quality problems now manifested in the lower Deschutes River. SWW Tower operations have impacted water quality and insect and fish life throughout the ecosystem of the lower river below the dam complex. This magnificent river, its wildlife, and the economic well-being of communities along the river are in peril.

Round Butte Dam. Selective Water Withdrawal Tower and Fish Collection Facility is housed in the structure in the left of the photo. Photo by Greg McMillan

Round Butte Dam. Selective Water Withdrawal Tower and Fish Collection Facility is housed in the structure in the left of the photo.
Photo by Greg McMillan

The DRA has exhausted all other possible avenues of pursuit of these issues. We have met with PGE 25 times since March 19, 2013. Since that time, PGE has refused to acknowledge its ongoing violation of the water quality requirements in the WQMMP.

Our last effort included assembling the conservation groups who are signatories to the Pelton-Round Butte operating license. Collectively we met with PGE in December of 2015. Despite our efforts to continue the process, PGE has refused to meet with the combined group again.

The DRA has been, and remains, supportive of anadromous fish reintroduction above Lake Billy Chinook. We feel that by addressing the water quality violations caused by SWW Tower operation, the fish reintroduction effort can be strengthened while simultaneously improving the water quality of the lower Deschutes River.

The sixty-day notice of intent to sue letter is a required precursor to a citizen suit filed under the Clean Water Act. Read the whole letter here.

Pelton Dam is the second dam in the three dam complex that forms the Pelton-Round Butte Hydroelectric Complex Photo by Greg McMillan

Pelton Dam is the second of three dams that form the Pelton-Round Butte Hydroelectric Complex.
Photo by Greg McMillan

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The Problem With the Water Quality Data in the PGE Lower Deschutes River Report by R2 Consultants

Pic 1 R2 Report

The above report (published in March of this year), as noted in prior DRA blog posts, was of a two-year study of the lower Deschutes River. The purpose of the report was to determine the magnitude of biological changes in the river due to the implementation of surface water withdrawal at Round Butte Dam. A baseline study was conducted in 1999-2001, which Portland General Electric (PGE) summarized in a report published in 2002.

Both studies were contracted and paid for by PGE and were a requirement of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license to operate the Pelton-Round Butte dams.

The water quality data from the most recent study can be found on pages 47 and 48 of the 2014-2015 report. The results document violations of the basin and statewide water quality standards in both years of the study. The most egregious violations were of the pH standard as established in Oregon Administrative Rules (OARs) 340-041-0021 and 340-041-0135. The Deschutes Basin Standard for pH is a maximum pH of 8.5. A pH of 7.0 is neutral (neither acid nor alkaline, greater than 7 is alkaline).

The authors attempt to diminish these violations by noting on page 46 of the report that, “Regarding the unusually high pH measurements taken in Spring 2015, since these are uniformly high, even in the reference sites, it is highly likely that the meter we used was off in its calibration. Therefore, any in situ measurements taken should be considered preliminary at best, and compared to official measurements taken by PGE or agencies.”

There are many problems with this statement.

R2 Resource Consultants are self-proclaimed experts in water quality monitoring and modeling, so one has to wonder how and why they would be unable to produce accurate water quality data? Why would they have calibration problems? If their equipment wasn’t functioning properly, why wouldn’t they use backup pH measuring equipment? If they didn’t have backup equipment, why couldn’t they borrow equipment or have it shipped in via overnight express? The pH measurement problems they most specifically refer to occurred over several days in April of 2015. That should have been enough time to correct any equipment problems.

There were also very high pH measurements in the three days of sampling in April/May of 2014 (10 out of 12 lower Deschutes River sites were above the 8.5 pH water quality standard). Were their instruments faulty then too?

Or is this an attempt to discard and disregard data that are indicative of water quality problems?

There is another potential reason that the high pH values were recorded during spring sampling in both years. When algae bloom, it increases pH. It does this by absorbing CO2 from water to conduct photosynthesis. The by-products of photosynthesis are sugar and oxygen. Notably, the dissolved oxygen levels on the dates of the high pH levels were also high, with dissolved oxygen saturation levels reaching up to 138%. This occurs when there is excessive algal growth.

We have noted extensive algae growth in the lower river this year, starting in February. We have also recorded pH levels of greater than 9 in April and May 2016.

Algae, early March 2016. One mile below Pelton-Round Butte Reregulating Dam.

Algae, early March 2016. One mile below Pelton-Round Butte Reregulating Dam.

Algae, late March 2016. One mile below Pelton-Round Butte Reregulating Dam.

Algae, late March 2016. One mile below Pelton-Round Butte Reregulating Dam.

We are troubled by the lack of explanation for R2’s “calibration problem(s).” It is standard procedure to have a quality control plan that includes details for meter calibration and procedures if they fail calibration. At the DRA, we maintain a log for each instrument we own. Recorded in each of these logs are the calibration dates, times and results. All instruments are calibrated before each day of water quality sampling. We carry backup equipment.

In the case of our in-river dwelling data instrument, once a month we perform “field audits” where we cross check the data it produces with independent meters and manual techniques. We cross check the performance of our meters.

We have such a stringent quality control program because two of our field staff worked for the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) for decades, doing water quality work. We exercise the same quality control methodology that ODEQ uses. We would suggest that PGE require the same of contractors doing water quality work.

DRA water quality staff at work:

Larry Marxer measuring dissolved oxygen in river water, using the Winkler method.

Larry Marxer measuring dissolved oxygen in river water, using the Winkler method.

Rick Hafele doing water quality measurements on Lake Billy Chinook.

Rick Hafele doing water quality measurements on Lake Billy Chinook.

Greg McMillan going old school on water quality measurements in 1979 (when old school was just school, or maybe pre-school).

Greg McMillan going old school on water quality measurements in 1979 (when old school was just school, or maybe pre-school).

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