It’s the DRA’s Fourth Anniversary! Help Us Celebrate and Move Forward.

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Dear Deschutes River Alliance Supporter,

As a busy summer nears its end and we transition into fall, we would like to take a moment to reflect and to share our immense gratitude for your support and what it has helped us accomplish.

August has truly been a month for the books. In addition to our ongoing science work, we also celebrated a huge victory in our lawsuit against Portland General Electric. Last week, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit sided with DRA and refused to hear a PGE appeal that would have delayed this important lawsuit from moving forward. This decision also left in place a crucial ruling we secured this spring, affirming the rights of citizens to enforce water quality requirements at hydroelectric projects.

We are proud to say that this month also marks the four year anniversary of the official establishment of the Deschutes River Alliance as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Over the past four years, the DRA has worked tirelessly to restore cooler, cleaner water in the lower Deschutes River. Besides our important victories in the courtroom, the DRA Science Team has been diligently documenting the sources and extent of the ecological changes occurring in the lower river.

Of our many accomplishments in that time, here are a few we are particularly proud of:

  • A thermal imaging study of the lower Deschutes River and the area around the three dams of the Pelton-Round Butte Complex. This allowed us and others to have a better understanding of the temperature behavior of the river between the PRB Complex and the Columbia River.
  • Two years (and counting) of algae and water quality studies on Lake Billy Chinook and the lower Deschutes River. This work documents the changes in water quality that have occurred since selective water withdrawal operations began, including the water quality violations that are at the core of our lawsuit against PGE.
  • Three years (and counting) of our annual adult aquatic insect hatch survey. This survey was designed by DRA Board member and renowned aquatic entomologist Rick Hafele, to gather data on hatch timing and densities.
  • Over one year of benthic aquatic insect sampling in two locations in the lower river, to document trends in subsurface aquatic insect activity. This study, along with the hatch survey results, indicates an increase in worms and snails along the river’s bottom, and a decrease in adult aquatic insect populations in the air.
  • Funded a GIS mapping project of water quality in the lower Crooked River, to better understand the source of the pollution load entering Lake Billy Chinook.
This and more have been achieved over the last four years. None of this could have been achieved without the dedication of people like you. You are what keep us on the water and in the courtroom fighting to restore the river we all love.

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Our mission continues to drum in our ears. It beats stronger with each day. As the river grows quieter, our voices grow louder.

Take a moment to listen to board member and key science team leader, Rick Hafele, as he masterfully recounts the abundance of activity that once filled the Deschutes River.

“Song for the Deschutes”
-Rick Hafele



This is where we stand. As we enter our fifth year, we are proud to take with us many victories, but the final battle has not yet been won. After our critical legal victory this month, we are entering a new stage of our Clean Water Act lawsuit against Portland General Electric. Now more than ever, we need your help in our fight to protect and restore this spectacular river.

Many of you have a long history on the Deschutes. All of you have at least one story to tell of time spent by or in its waters. If you have been to the Deschutes this summer, you are likely walking away with a different tone to the story of your day. Maybe instead of catching steelhead, you hooked bass or walleye. Maybe you noticed the failure of caddis hatches to materialize in the evening.  Maybe you left without the sounds of songbirds or the cloud of insects trailing behind you.

Rest assured that this fight is not over. We can revive the once vibrant display of the Deschutes River that you’ve long known. Thank you for your support over the past four years, and cheers to Year Five: may it be the loudest ever.

 


Deschutes River Alliance: Cooler, cleaner H2O for the lower Deschutes River. 

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Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Notifies Portland General Electric of “Serious Shortcomings” in R2 Resource Consultants Report on Insects and Algae in Lower Deschutes River

Round Butte Dam and the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Round Butte Dam and the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Citing flawed laboratory methodology and inappropriately applied statistical analysis, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) informed Portland General Electric (PGE) in a May 23, 2016 letter that PGE’s report by R2 Resource Consultants has been deemed inadequate and deficient in several key components.

The primary purpose of the R2 Resource Consultants study, titled “Final Report: Lower Deschutes River Macroinvertebrate and Periphyton Study” and mandated by the dam operators’ Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification, is to determine whether or not operation of the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower at Round Butte Dam has had an impact on the ecology of the river below the dam complex. A baseline study was done in 1999-2001. The present study was intended to compare current in-river conditions in the lower Deschutes River to prior conditions as they were documented in the baseline study.

ODEQ has given PGE until June 30, 2016 to “respond with a plan for mitigating or eliminating the shortcomings of the study.”

As a result, the study’s conclusion that water quality and overall health has improved in the lower river has been rendered an assertion without scientific support. The ODEQ review even went on to say that there are indications that the study supports the opposite conclusion and that water quality has been reduced.

The ODEQ review of the study also expressed the same concern that the DRA had previously described regarding the collection of water quality data and the suggestion by the authors that unfavorable water quality results in the report were due to poorly calibrated instruments.

DRA Analysis of the Report

The DRA had asked four highly qualified individuals (each has a PhD in a field specific to the R2 report) to critique the study. We recently received the first of those critiques back. It is critical of the statistical methodology employed by R2 Resource Consultants and confirms ODEQ’s analysis.

We sought these four reviews as we had major concerns about the R2 report. Almost all of our concerns are mirrored in the ODEQ analysis.

The Selective Water Withdrawal Tower above Round Butte Dam. Photo by Greg McMillan.

The Selective Water Withdrawal Tower above Round Butte Dam. Photo by Greg McMillan.

How Did This Happen?

The macroinvertebrate and periphyton study is a highly important component of the monitoring of the Pelton-Round Hydroelectric Complex impact on the Deschutes River. The installation and implementation of the Selective Water Withdrawal Tower was the single largest anthropogenic change that has been imposed on the lower Deschutes River in the past fifty years. The impacts of that change have to be monitored effectively using appropriate methodology and analysis. This sort of monitoring is mandated by the Water Quality Management and Monitoring Plan, a part of the Clean Water Act Section 401 Certification that sets standards for operations at the Pelton-Round Butte Hydroelectric Complex.

This is the only way to determine if tower operations are having harmful effects on the lower river.

The dam operation permits and certification call for “adaptive management” in the event that there are problems created by Selective Water Withdrawal. To date, the only “adaptive management” invoked by PGE has been to seek agreements from ODEQ not to enforce various water quality requirements imposed on dam operations. The intent of the macroinvertebrate and periphyton study is to determine if that has or has not resulted in damage to the ecology of the lower river.

So the stakes are high for PGE. If this report were to document a decline in water quality and unfavorable changes to the ecology of the river below the dam complex, changes in dam operations would need to be made.

R2 Resource Consultants seem to be highly qualified to conduct studies such as this. But the work was done as a paid service to PGE.

PGE has been entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring for adverse changes to the river system as a consequence of the SWW Tower and its operation. This responsibility needs to be undertaken with a rigorous and transparent approach to assessing the state of a public resource affected by their operations. Anything else is a violation of that responsibility.

Deschutes River Alliance: Cooler, cleaner H2O for the lower Deschutes River. 

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2015 Lower Deschutes River Aquatic Insect Hatch Activity Survey Results Report by Rick Hafele Now Available

The annual DRA aquatic insect hatch observation report for 2015 is posted to our website. Please click here to access the report.

Photo by Rick Hafele

Photo by Rick Hafele

This report, authored by Rick Hafele, is the result of the many hatch observations in 2015 by several professional guides on the lower Deschutes River. All observers received training at a Deschutes River Alliance workshop in Maupin in March of 2015. They then utilized a mobile device app to report their observations.

We want to give special thanks to the guides who participated (and continue to participate in 2016) in this process. They are: Brian Silvey, John Smeraglio, Evan Unti, Harley Faria, Alex Gonsiewski, and Dan Anthon. We would also like to thank Dave Moskowitz and Rick Trout for the reports they furnished.

The observations are summarized in this report. A continuing trend of earlier hatches, and of fewer and less dense hatches is noted once again in 2015. These trends were seen throughout the months of March to October. Declines from the previous two years were observed for all major groups of insects except midges, which remain unchanged.

Antocha crane fly adult. Photo by Rick Hafele.

Antocha crane fly adult. Photo by Rick Hafele.

The report is 29 pages long and full of information any angler needs to better understand fly-fishing the lower Deschutes River, as well as the trends in aquatic insect populations that have historically occupied the Deschutes River.

The DRA is especially grateful to Rick Hafele for his expertise in aquatic entomology and for the work he put into conceiving and organizing this ongoing monitoring effort, the collating and analysis of the observational data, and the writing of the report.

We intend to continue this monitoring effort to provide surveillance of the long-term trends in lower Deschutes River aquatic insects. The training for the 2016 hatch observers took place in March. We are already receiving their reports for the 2016 report. We’ve also added two benthic (river bottom) kick-sample sites that we began sampling in the fall of 2016.   Since Portland General Electric completed their macroinvertebrate and periphyton sampling in April/May of 2015, no one other than the DRA is monitoring aquatic insect populations in the lower Deschutes River.

Chuck Kenlan with an early evening fish that rose to a caddis imitation. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Chuck Kenlan with an early evening fish that rose to a caddis imitation. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Deschutes River Alliance: Cooler, cleaner H2O for the lower Deschutes River. 

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A Second Type of Algae Plagues the Lower Deschutes

By Greg McMillan and the Board of Directors of the Deschutes River Alliance, to especially include Cam Groner and Rick Hafele

In the words of DRA board member John Hazel, “It’s been a rugged summer.”  He’s right.  Drought, fire, smoke, warm water temperatures, fish die-offs, and fishing closures have all plagued the lower Deschutes River this year.  Now we have a new problem.  As if the lower Deschutes hasn’t had enough problems already.

Starting two weeks ago we started receiving emails and phone calls about a free-floating, green filamentous algae being present in the river.  It was draping itself in clumps over flies, knots in fishing lines, lures, side-planers and anchor lines on boats.  Shortly after that we started hearing from individuals with pumps in the river for domestic and irrigation withdrawals.  The algae was clogging the screens on their pumps.  Next we heard that the water pump at the fish counting station at Sherars Falls was suffering from the same problem with clogged screens.   The impact to irrigation pumps has resulted in screens having to be cleaned several times a day.  This puts very expensive pumps at risk of serious damage.

The potential economic consequences of this are hard to estimate, but it does have an impact.  Anglers are already avoiding the lower Deschutes due to warm water, a slippery river bottom, lack of aquatic insect hatches and turbidity from White River.  This impacts guides, outfitters and other businesses dependent upon the angling economy.

For those with pumps in the river, the cost of a damaged pump, labor to clean screens, or an outright inability to irrigate would be damaging to their incomes.  These incomes pay the tax dollars that support Wasco County and the Maupin School District.

The Algae

These stringy looking dark green algae have been presumptively identified as Cladophora, with possibly some Anabaena mixed in.  Cladophora has been observed in the lower Deschutes River for a long time.  But never in quantities like are being observed now.

The peak time for growth of Cladophora is typically late spring and early summer, although it can undergo a growth spurt in fall as decomposing organic matter provides nutrients to stimulate its biological activity.

Cladophora is widespread globally.  Cladophora blooms in the Great Lakes are legendarily bad and have created major environmental problems including fish die-offs.  This happens when the Cladophora dies and starts to decay, using up oxygen in the water and creating low oxygen conditions for fish and other aquatic organisms.  We are not likely to see fish die-offs due to Cladophora in the lower Deschutes as long as the flowing water in the river helps keep oxygen at adequate levels.

The growth of Cladophora has probably reached its peak in the lower Deschutes River, as well as its maximum life expectancy.  It is now detaching from the substrate in the river and floating off in the current for the last of its short life.

Cladophora sample collected from the lower Deschutes River on August, 16, 2015. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Cladophora sample collected from the lower Deschutes River on August, 16, 2015. Photo by Greg McMillan.

Why So Much Cladophora Now?

Cladophora blooms like we are seeing in the lower Deschutes River are invariably the consequence of an increased nutrient load in the river.  The nutrients are nitrogen and phosphorous.  Warm water helps fuel the growth of Cladophora.

This summer has been very warm, even downright hot at times.  Temperature management at the Pelton-Round Butte Dam Complex has used large amounts of surface water to increase dam discharge water temperatures in accordance with the Without Project Temperature (WPT, and previously called Natural Thermal Potential) model utilized by the dam owner/operators (Portland General Electric and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation). In a recent blog post we described how this model works and how it results in the harmful warming of the lower river during times of warmer air temperatures.

During our fieldwork in Lake Billy Chinook this year, we’ve been seeking to determine how dam operations have altered the nutrient load in the lower Deschutes.  We’ve found that of the three tributaries, the Crooked River has the highest nutrient load, while the Metolius River has the lowest.  The Metolius, in our sampling, has had no detectable nitrogen based nutrients.

The Metolius River enters the reservoir and then flows into the forebay of the dam at depths approaching 350 feet.  The Crooked River enters the forebay at about 120 feet of depth (the Middle Deschutes enters the Crooked River Arm about ½ mile south of the forebay).  The result is that the combined Crooked and Middle Deschutes River water sits on top of the Metolius River water during warm months.  Once the lake cools in mid- to late fall, the lake begins to “turn over” or mix.

The consequence of this is that the surface water in the forebay consists primarily of Crooked River water.  To see how the nutrient load in the Crooked River water fuels algae growth, take a look at the surface water in the Crooked River Arm of the reservoir in this unaltered photo:

Photo by Greg McMillan.

Photo by Greg McMillan.

Here is what the surface water looks like in the forebay of Round Butte Dam during summer:

Photo by Greg McMillan.

Photo by Greg McMillan.

By mid-summer the algae in the reservoir have used much of the nutrients for their own growth, but through spring and early summer that nutrient laden water is discharged into the lower river.   The result is more rapid algal growth.  And not just with Cladophora, but also with the stalked diatoms we’ve been documenting in the lower river that have contributed to the decline of aquatic insects.

Prior to the completion of the Surface Water Withdrawal Tower at Round Butte Dam in 2009, Metolius River water made up the bulk of the water drawn from the reservoir for power production.  We didn’t have these problems in the lower river prior to operation of the SWW Tower.

We are certain that these consequences of surface water withdrawal were not intended in the design and implementation of the Selective Water Withdrawal program that attempted to provide currents in the reservoir for juvenile fish migration.

The Solution

It has been demonstrated in cases of other Cladophora blooms that controlling nutrient load reduces or eliminates the problem.  That can be done in this case.  And should be done by reducing the amount of warm, nutrient-laden surface water being discharged into the lower Deschutes.  Nuisance algae problems have been increasing annually since the initiation of surface water withdrawal at Round Butte Dam.

We need to develop the political will to push PGE to alter dam operations in a fashion that eliminates the nutrient loading of the lower Deschutes River.  This is possible now with the adaptive management language in the dam operating license.

We also need the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality to stop ignoring the ongoing violations of water quality standards in the lower Deschutes River.  This will require in-depth water quality studies that could take years to get done.  So it needs to start now.  This is the long-term remedy to the algae problems in the lower Deschutes River.

Deschutes River Alliance: Cooler, cleaner H2O for the lower Deschutes River. 

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2014 Lower Deschutes River Aquatic Insect Hatch Report – by Greg McMillan

2014 Lower Deschutes River Aquatic Insect Hatch Survey Report

Now Available

Our 2014 Lower Deschutes River Aquatic Insect Hatch Survey by Rick Hafele is now available on our website. Rick, with the help of several guides and experienced fly anglers, compiled over 100 hatch observations in this report.

This is a worthwhile read to understand the hatches on the lower Deschutes. It’s also essential reading to understand the changes in aquatic insect populations and their hatch timing.

The single most startling result noted in the survey is the disappearance of the Antocha crane flies. The participants in this survey aren’t the only ones to note the disappearance of the Antochas. Portland General Electric and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, owners/operators of the Pelton-Round Butte Dam complex, hired a natural resources consultant to do a biological survey of the lower Deschutes River. That consultant, in their report, has also failed to find evidence of Antocha crane flies.

How important is the loss of a species of insect in the lower Deschutes? If it’s an indicator of river health, the answer is very important. And we believe the Antochas are an indicator of river health.   We believe that the cause of their demise is the algae that now grows in the splash zone on river rock in the lower Deschutes. It’s in the splash zone that adult crane flies lay their eggs.

Deschutes Crane Flies by John Hazel

Deschutes Crane Flies by John Hazel

This algae, new since the switch to surface water withdrawal at Round Butte Dam, is likely the result of a change in nutrients being discharged from the dam. DRA has reported on this in several previous posts.

Antochas did have value to anglers. During the time of their mating, they were sometimes swept off rocks and made available to feeding fish. The astute angler could be very successful if imitating them at these times. But they had a more important role, and that was as part of the larger food chain of the Deschutes River Canyon. That food chain includes (but is not limited to) fish, birds and bats. The loss of Antochas must not be taken lightly.

Photo by Dave Hughes

Antocha Crane Fly

Special thanks to Rick Hafele for his expertise and diligence in creating this important publication. Also, special thanks to the guides and anglers who made this report possible (John Smeraglio, Sam Sickles, Alex Gonsiewski, David Moskowitz, Steve Pribyl, Steve Light, Evan Unti, Rick Trout, and Damien Nurre).

Where Have All the Crane Flies Gone?

Antocha crane flies have been a staple of summertime on the lower Deschutes all of the years I’ve fished the lower river. And that’s a lot of years (measurable in decades). I’d say how many years, but it would make me feel old, very old. Not as old as some of my friends and fellow anglers, but old.

Photo by Dave Hughes

An Antocha crane fly occupying its place in nature.

These small flies (of the order Diptera, family Tipulidae) are most typically seen perched on rocks in river water, occupying the wet surface of the rock where air and water meet. They are frequently seen to be doing push-ups as they mate and lay eggs. They are made available to fish when wave action sometimes washes them off of the rocks they occupy. I often imitated these flies with a size 16 or 18 pink bodied compara-dun, which simultaneously imitated pale morning duns, which hatched concurrently with the annual appearance of crane flies on the lower Deschutes.

Three years ago these small dipterids began to disappear on the lower Deschutes. It was one of the events that turned out to be a harbinger of things to come. This past summer, only two individual crane fly sightings (of one crane fly each) were reported to the DRA’s Rick Hafele through guide and angler-generated hatch observations. I personally spent nearly sixty days on the river doing fieldwork this summer, and saw none. In the past, I saw them by the thousands, perhaps even hundreds of thousands. At their peak activity, they literally rimmed wet river rocks that had any exposed surface above the water line.

We believe that their disappearance is linked to the nuisance algae that have so pervasively spread in the lower river. This photo demonstrates why:

Photo by Greg McMillan

Algae-rimmed rocks on the Deschutes.  Photo by Greg McMillan

Note that the water line is covered with algae. In the first picture, the rock surface is clean. In the second, algae obscure the wet rock surfaces. We are currently hypothesizing that the algae prevent the crane flies from either being able to occupy these rocky surfaces, prevent egg laying , or alter egg survival. We do know that the timing of the appearance of these nuisance algae is in line with the loss of crane fly populations in the lower Deschutes.

How important is this loss of Antocha crane flies? No one knows. But rarely is the unintended loss of a benign species a good sign.   We know that other aquatic insects have declined in numbers. Our aquatic insect hatch database confirms this (last years report, from our initial pilot study, can be found here).

In another month or so we will have the results of our water quality-monitoring project ready for release. The data are currently undergoing statistical analysis, and once this is complete, report writing will begin. Algae growth and proliferation like we are seeing in the lower Deschutes the past three to four years is a consequence of a change in water quality, specifically nutrient loading.

Watch this website and blog for news on what we found.

Greg McMillan

A Brief Update for Our Donors and Supporters from Greg McMillan

First, allow us to say how grateful we are for the support you’ve shown us, and the lower Deschutes River.

Dixon

Photo by David Moskowitz

Second, we are very busy at the Deschutes River Alliance as we are about to deploy our science initiative.  We’ve just signed a contract to accomplish the aerial thermal and hyper-spectral imaging on the lower river.  The information from this effort will detect thermal influences, locate possible nutrient sources, and map the distribution of the invasive algae.

NASA Photo

NASA Photo

Third, we are in the process of picking up the instruments to do our in-river water quality monitoring at the peak of the algae bloom.  We will have five stations from the mouth up to the Pelton Reregulating Dam that will be gather the most comprehensive water quality data in the lower Deschutes River.

Pine Envi

Fourth, our aquatic insect hatch survey is well underway and we are accruing much more data than in 2013.

Photo by Greg McMillan

Photo by Greg McMillan

Lastly, we’ve assisted Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife in their redband trout growth study by conducting the analysis of redband trout stomach contents.

Photo by Greg McMillan

Photo by Greg McMillan

None of this work would be possible without your support.  And this fall, we’ll be ready to share the results of all of our work with you.  Again, thank you for making this possible.

Sincerely and gratefully yours,

 Greg McMillan

Board President

Director of Science and Conservation